osnanrentxysig.tk | The Coming of the Third Reich (ebook), Richard J. Evans | | Boeken
Learn about Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria in , the Anschluss, and the world's response to this act of open aggression. Get insight into the German public opinion on Hitler's invasion of Poland in with these primary source excerpts. Suggested Resources Add or Edit Playlist. Sort by Relevance Title A-Z. Add or Edit Playlist. Only Hitler deliberately launched a war of European and, ultimately — in intention at least — world conquest, planned from the moment he took power, if not earlier.
Homosexuals were killed because they were a danger to the Aryan race, supposedly compromising its virility. Gypsies were slaughtered because the Nazis thought they carried a hereditary taint of criminality. This was genocide planned on an almost unimaginable scale. The Nazis and those who served them were wedded to modern technology, racing cars, motorways, cinema, TV, rockets, jet-propelled planes — even the atom bomb, though they never succeeded in their attempts to build one. This makes it all the more easy to imagine ourselves in their situation and wonder what we might have done in the Third Reich had we been there.
Nazism, the society it created, the world of the Third Reich and the people who lived through it all appear as a kind of moral drama where the issues are laid out starkly before us with a clarity we are no longer able to achieve in the morally complex, confusing and compromised world we live in today. Occasionally we might nod in the direction of the few who resisted, but their numbers shrink into insignificance in comparison with those considered guilty or innocent, the actively criminal and their passive victims. Yet we have not always approached the history of nazism in this way.
Indeed, the predominantly moral perspective from which Hitler and the Germany he created are currently viewed is a relatively recent one. For a long time after the end of the war he launched in September and lost five and a half years later, Hitler was a comparatively neglected topic for historians, as were the Nazi movement and the Nazi state.
The trials were quickly forgotten, at least for the time being. In the countries formerly occupied by Nazi Germany, such as France, people wanted to remember the resistance. In the Eastern bloc, communist governments celebrated and exaggerated the role of communist resisters but preferred to try to integrate ex-Nazis into the new society they were building rather than come to a reckoning with their crimes.
In Britain, people remembered the war, the stoicism of the population during the blitz and the achievements of the British armed forces, but not much besides.
For Germans, the key question was how and why the Nazis had come to power. By the s, social history had arrived on the scene. Nazi documents had become available in large quantities, a younger generation of West German historians began work on them, and research students in Britain and America travelled to Germany to take advantage of their release. Unsurprisingly, research uncovered a huge variety of responses, ranging from fanatical enthusiasm to underground opposition, mostly by former communists and social democrats. The pioneer of this approach in Germany, Martin Broszat, director of the Munich-based Institute of Contemporary History, led a massive project whose report, published in six stout volumes, showed that most Germans had complied with the regime in many respects, but resisted when it impinged on their deepest beliefs, notably in the area of religion.
A lot of ordinary people grumbled about their standard of living, were pessimistic about the war, criticised the corruption of leading Nazis and were generally less than enthusiastic about the way things were going, above all when the economy was in the doldrums, as in , or when the war started going badly, from early onwards.
But Hitler held their allegiance almost to the end. Nazi Germany was portrayed as a country under the occupation of a small group of gangsters from whom the great majority of people had remained detached. Thus nazism had to be treated like any other historical phenomenon, using the methods of modern historical scholarship and eschewing moral judgment and condemnation. In advocating this view, Broszat was building on his experience and that of his colleagues in providing expert reports to the trials of Nazi war criminals, notably the Auschwitz trials, in which the Munich Institute supplied affidavits on issues such as whether the SS camp guards were forced to choose between committing atrocities and facing a court martial for disobedience, or how the concentration camps had been established and how they were run.
Why are we obsessed with the Nazis?
The crimes of the Nazis were so extraordinary, so extreme that to historicise the Third Reich in this way was to miss the centrality of antisemitism and the extermination of the Jews to Hitler and the Nazis. The younger historians of the s and s concentrated on issues such as the complicity of German elites in the rise and triumph of nazism, and the long-term roots of the Third Reich in the social and political history of 19th-century Germany. There is also an exhibition about the famous diary.
Berlin offers you access to art — not only aesthetically but also on a practical level: these are the barrier-free museums of the capital. Block of Women Block of Women.
Richard J. Evans
Book burning memorial at Bebelplatz Book burning memorial at Bebelplatz. As well as Jews, many other minorities suffered under national socialism — the memorial to the homosexuals persecuted by the Nazis commemorates one of them.
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At the historic site where the German army surrendered at the end of WW2, the German-Russian Museum tells the story of both countries in the 20th century. Elstal: a diverse landscape outside the gates of the city Elstal: a diverse landscape outside the gates of the city. Elstal is right 30 minutes from the centre of Berlin and has a lot to offer. The historical monument is characterised by late expressionist elements which merge with the New Objectivity style.
The memorial centre at Sachsenhausen tells the story of one of the biggest concentration camps on German territory from to Cast your eyes across the forests and lakes. The bell tower at the Olympiastadion offers a magnificent panorama. Find out more about the history of the Olympic site.
The House of the Wannsee Conference provides a free permanent exhibition about the destruction of the European Jews by the National Socialists. Courageous people gave their lives to bring down the Nazi dictatorship. In the middle of the city is the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, and imposing place of remembrance and warning. The Nazi Forced Labour Documentation Centre tells the stories of the people who were imprisoned there. The Centre is housed in a former Nazi labour camp.
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